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Structures

20 May, 2020   ·   Rust

Structures(struct) are compound(and user-defined) data types. Structures are much similar to tuples, except that data can named. Structures can be set as a return type in a function.

Defining a Struct

Structures are defined using the keyword struct. Example:

struct Person {
  name: String,
  age: u64,
  sex: karwa_do,
}

Instantiating Structs

In order to create a new instance of an Structure, one has to call that structure with concrete values. Example:

fn main() {
  let person1 = Person {
    name: "Jon",
    age: 632,
    sex: "male",
  }
}

Accessing and Mutating values

Dot notation could be used to access a specific value. A structure must be declared as mutable if it needs to be mutated on a later stage. Individual values can’t be mutated. Example:


Person {
  name: String,
  age: u64,
  sex: String,
}

fn main() {
  let mut person1 = Person {
    name: "Jon",
    age: 632,
    sex: "male",
  };

  person1.name = String::from("Jon Snow");
  println!("Name is {}", person1.name);
}

Other Useful Things

  1. If function parameter and struct's property name is same, the value part could be omitted. For example, let p1 = Person{ name }(assuming that name is a function parameter).

  2. Struct update syntax can be used to copy property from another instance of the same struct. For example:

fn main() {
  let p1 = Person {
    name: "Jon",
    age: 32,
    sex: "male",
  };

  let p2 = Person {
    name: "Tormund",
    age: 40,
    ..p1  // this would copy the value of
          // p1.age to this instance
  }
}

Tuple Struct

Tuple struct looks similar to tuples. Unlike tuple, tuple struct does have a name.

struct Color(i32, i32, i32);

let black = Color(0, 0, 0);

Example Code Snippet using Struct

#[derive(Debug)]
struct Rectangle {
    width: i32,
    height: i32,
}

fn main() {
    let r1 = Rectangle {
        height: 30,
        width: 20,
    };

    println!("Rectangle is {:#?}", r1);
    println!("Area is {}", area(&r1));
}

fn area(dimension: &Rectangle) -> i32 {
    dimension.height * dimension.width
}

Note:

  1. By default, println! mecro can not print structures. A formatter :?(:#? for pretty print) should be added. Example: println!("Rectangle is {:#?}", struct_instance);

  2. #[derive(Debug)] - Implements std::fmt::Debug in struct Rectangle. Without this method, above formatter won’t work.

  3. &Rectangle is used so that the main function can keep the ownership of r1 instance.

Structures could be anonymous as well as named. For example:

enum Rect {
  Dimension {
    height: u32,
    width: u32,
  }
}

Rect::Dimension is an anonymous struct

 structures  struct
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